5G-LENA

ns-3 module to simulate 3GPP 5G networks.NA
(6)

The NR module is a pluggable module to ns-3 that can be used to simulate 5G New Radio (NR) cellular networks. The simulator is the natural evolution of LENA, the LTE/EPC Network Simulator, but its development started from the mmWave module because it was more advanced in terms of beamforming, TDD, 3GPP channel model, and operation at FR2. It incorporates fundamental PHY-MAC NR features aligned with 3GPP NR Release-15.

It is a module that can be plugged in ns-3-dev, starting from version 3.31, and supports the following features:

  • Non-Standalone Architecture (NSA) architecture: 5G RAN and 4G EPC

  • Spatial channel model aligned with ns3-dev, and able to simulate 0.5-100 GHz frequency ranges

  • Time Division Duplexing (TDD) and Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) modes, with configurable TDD patterns

  • Flexible and automatic configuration of the NR frame structure through multiple numerologies

  • Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based access with variable transmission time intervals and single beam capability

  • Restructuring and redesign of the MAC layer, including flexible MAC schedulers that simultaneously consider time- and frequency-domain resources (resource blocks and OFDM symbols) both for TDMA and OFDMA-based access schemes with variable TTI

  • UpLink (UL) grant-based access scheme with scheduling request and 3GPP-compliant buffer status reporting

  • NR-compliant processing delays and control timings (N0, N1, N2; K0, K1, K2)

  • Bandwidth Part (BWP) managers and the architecture to support operation through multiple BWPs and component carriers

  • NR PHY layer abstraction, considering LDPC codes, MCS Tables 1 and 2 (up to 256-QAM), LDPC base graph selection and NR block segmentation

  • Helpers to easily manage spectrum regions configuration, to allow Multi-Cell Configurations (easing the process of creating multiple cells with different configurations), and Radio Environment Map (REM) helpers, capable of creating downlink and uplink (REM) maps

  • NR-U extension to operate in unlicensed spectrum, through multiple channel access managers, including duty-cycling as well as Listen-Before-Talk (LBT)-based procedures

Publications

Please refer to the following publications for further information about the capabilities, implementation model and validation details of the 5G-LENA Simulator:

  • N. Patriciello, S. Lagen, B. Bojovic, L. Giupponi, NR-U and IEEE 802.11 Technologies Coexistence in Unlicensed mmWave Spectrum: Models and Evaluation, in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 71254-71271, 2020.

  • N. Patriciello, S. Lagen, B. Bojovic, L. Giupponi, An E2E Simulator for 5G NR Networks, Elsevier Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory (SIMPAT), vol. 96, 101933, Nov. 2019.

  • T. Zugno, M. Polese, N. Patriciello, B. Bojovic, S. Lagen, M. Zorzi, Implementation of A Spatial Channel Model for ns-3, in Workshop on ns-3, June 2020.

  • S. Lagen, K. Wanuga, H. Elkotby, S. Goyal, N. Patriciello, L. Giupponi, New Radio Physical Layer Abstraction for System-Level Simulations of 5G Networks, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE ICC), 7-11 June 2020.

  • S. Lagen, N. Patriciello, L. Giupponi, Cellular and Wi-Fi in Unlicensed Spectrum: Competition leading to Convergence, in 6G Wireless Summit, 17-20 March 2020.

  • N. Patriciello, S. Lagen, L. Giupponi, B. Bojovic, The impact of NR Scheduling Timings on End-to-End Delay for Uplink Traffic, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE GC), 9-14 December 2019, Waikoloa (HI, USA).

  • N. Patriciello, S. Lagen, L. Giupponi, B. Bojovic, An Improved MAC Layer for the 5G NR ns-3 module, in Workshop on ns-3, 19-20 June 2019, Florence (Italy).

  • N. Patriciello, S. Lagen, L. Giupponi, B. Bojovic, 5G New Radio Numerologies and their Impact on the End-To-End Latency, in Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Computer-Aided Modeling Analysis and Design of Communication Links and Networks (IEEE CAMAD), 17-19 September 2018, Barcelona (Spain).

  • B. Bojovic, S. Lagen, L. Giupponi, Implementation and Evaluation of Frequency Division Multiplexing of Numerologies for 5G New Radio in ns-3, in Workshop on ns-3, 13-14 June 2018, Surathkal (India).

If you use the NR module in your research, please cite N. Patriciello, S. Lagen, B. Bojovic, L. Giupponi, An E2E Simulator for 5G NR Networks, Elsevier Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory (SIMPAT), vol. 96, 101933, Nov. 2019. Available here: http://arxiv.org/abs/1911.05534 .

If your work is based on the NR-U extension, please cite N. Patriciello, S. Lagen, B. Bojovic, L. Giupponi, NR-U and IEEE 802.11 Technologies Coexistence in Unlicensed mmWave Spectrum: Models and Evaluation, in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 71254-71271, 2020.

Future work

The following features are intended to be added to the project in the future:

  • Interference management/coordination (including ICIC and notching), based on almost blank slots

  • Uplink power control

  • Real modeling of control channels (PDCCH, PUCCH)

  • Sounding reference signals (SRS) modeling

  • Realistic beamforming based on SRS-based channel estimate

  • Xn interface

  • RRC improvements

  • NR V2X extension

About the Model:

The model is being developed and maintained by the Mobile Networks group CTTC (Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya). Its development was initially funded by InterDigital, and continues with funding from the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) and a grant from the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST).

NR-v1.0

Works with ns-3.31

Release Notes

<p>This release adds new features, including FDD, channel model aligned with ns-3-dev, control timings and processing delays, realistic MAC headers, various trace sources, renamed traces/classes/examples/helpers.</p>

NR-v0.4

Works with ns-3.31

Release Notes

<p>This release includes the complete PHY abstraction for NR error modelling.</p>

NR-v0.2

Works with ns-3.29

Release Notes

<p>This release adds new features, including NR frame structure, support of numerologies, flexible TTI, mini-slots, mixed UL-DL slot formats, OFDMA- and TDMA-based access, a selection of schedulers, NR timings, FDM of numerologies, and UL standard-compliant scheme with SR/UL-grant/BSR.</p>

NR-v0.3

Works with ns-3.30

Release Notes

<p>This release adds new features, including a new MAC/PHY state machine to control channel access, an updated channel model, with a separate procedure for beamforming and the possibility to compute UE/UE and gNB/gNB interferences, and the interface for the new NR L2SM.</p>

To get the software, please follow the instructions here: [https://5g-lena.cttc.es/download/](https://5g-lena.cttc.es/download/). The instructions to download our customized ns-3-dev as well as the NR module, are available here: [https://cttc-lena.gitlab.io/nr/getting-started.html](https://cttc-lena.gitlab.io/nr/getting-started.html)

To report bugs, please open an issue in the module GitLab repository.

Contributions to the module are welcome. To do so, please make a pull request against the master branch on the GitLab repository.

This ns-3 extension is one or more contributed modules.

Version NR-v1.0

Released Sept. 1, 2020

Works with ns-3.31